A reciprocating air compressor or piston compressor is a positive-displacement compressor that uses pistons driven by a crankshaft to deliver gases at high pressure.
The intake gas enters the suction manifold, then flows into the compression cylinder where it gets compressed by a piston driven in a reciprocating motion via a crankshaft, and is then discharged. Applications include oil refineries, gas pipelines, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and refrigeration plants. One specialty application is the blowing of plastic bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET).
In the ionic liquid piston compressor many seals and bearings were removed in the design as the ionic liquid does not mix with the gas. Service life is about 10 times longer than a regular diaphragm compressor with reduced maintenance during use, energy costs are reduced by as much as 20%. The heat exchangers that are used in a normal reciprocating air compressor are removed as the heat is removed in the cylinder itself where it is generated. Almost 100% of the energy going into the process is being used with little energy wasted as reject heat.
1.Piston: It does reciprocating motion in the cylinder and responsible for the compression of the air.
2.Cylinder: It is a chamber in which air is compressed.
3.Connection Rod: It connects the piston and crankshaft.
4.Crankshaft: It is connected to the shaft of electric motor. And transfers its rotary motion to the piston.
5.Suction valve: The air is sucked through suction valve when piston moves to BDC.
6.Discharge valve: The compressed air is discharged through the discharge valve to the storage tank.
Types of Reciprocating Air Compressor
3.Single stage air Compressor
4.Double stage air Compressor
1. Single Acting
In single acting reciprocating air compressor only single side of the piston is used for the compression of the air and other side is connected to the crankcase and not used for the compression.
2. Double Acting
In this types of compressor, both the sides of the piston is used for the compression of the air. When suction takes place at one side than compression is taking place at other side. Both suction and compression takes place on each stroke of the piston.
3. Single Stage
In single stage reciprocating air compressor the compression of the air takes place in a single cylinder. In the first stroke, it sucks the air from the atmosphere and in the second stroke it compresses it and deliver it to the storage tank.
4. Double Stage Reciprocating Air Compressor
In this types of compressor, the compression of the air takes place in two stages i.e. the air is first compressed to some extent in one cylinder and than it is transferred to the second cylinder for further compression. Finally the compressed air is stored in a tank.